to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. [37] FIDH, The Death Penalty in North Korea: In the machinery of a totalitarian state, p. 22, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/en-report-northkorea-high-resolution.pdf, May 16, 2013. 26, 2014. [60] Amnesty reports that executions were carried out for murder and cannibalism in 2013. [31] The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. [79] The Korea Institute for National Unification also reported that in September 2010, a 40-year-old man was sentenced to public execution for stealing six cows, as it was considered a deliberate damage to national wealth. Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 166, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008. [25] In October, South Korean media reported there had been 64 public executions in the first nine months of 2016. U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 30, 2010. Là où les systèmes judiciaires sont défaillants et où les procès iniques sont monnaie c… Also, the State makes every member of a household accountable for the conduct of his immediate kin (although it is unlikely that the state executes kin for a relative’s crimes), while some criminal suspects escape punishment because of their family background. 59, 60, 62, 64, 67, 278, Mar. 89(d), U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/72/PRK, Aug. 27, 2001. [43] The Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, art. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/135995.htm, Mar. 26, 2014. [9] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, para. [74] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, p. 25, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. We found no information on whether the state provides lawyers for indigent prisoners on appeal. [5] We believe that persons who commit political crimes are most likely to be sentenced to death and that many death row inmates are imprisoned in political prison camps. La RPDC punira de la peine de mort tout individu complotant l'assassinat de Kim Jong-un dépêche de presse du 28 juin 2017 - Xinhua. [29] U.S. Dept. [2] An estimated 200,000 offenders and their families are held in two types of zones: Total Control Zone and Revolutionary Zone. ?? ??? [8] Before the executions, a North Korea official with a megaphone read the charges aloud and denounced them for being “traitors of the fatherland.” [9] Prisoners report that authorities at their facility would “stage public executions fifteen or twenty times” each year. 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. 62-86, Sep. 8, 1948, last amended Apr. A/65/779, Mar. [57]. Ce châtiment cruel, inhumain et dégradant est infligé au nom de la justice. Richard Parry, North Korea executes top official Pak Nam Gi who oversaw currency revaluation, The Sunday Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article7066576.ece, Mar. (‘Shooting…Shooting…Shooting…’ North Korean COVID-19 Measures), http://www.donga.com/news/article/all/20200305/100013029/1, The Dong-A Ilbo, Mar. At the same time, news reports from North Korea regarding specific cases should be read with caution. CCPR/CO/72/PRK, Aug. 27, 2001. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. [13] In March 2019, two women accused of carrying out “superstitious activities” were publicly tried and executed by firing squad in North Hamgyong’s Chongjin city. (North Korean Who Was Arrested by the Ministry of State Security for Possession of a Bible Has Been Executed in Private), https://www.dailynk.com/???-???-???-???-???-?-??-?? of State, 2003 Human Rights Report: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2003/27775.htm, Feb. 25, 2004. U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. [52] According to media reports, the state often carries out executions of common citizens who run afoul of state opinion or embarrass the state after little or no meaningful judicial process, [53] and the state carries out high-profile executions of political figures who have fallen into disfavor, also without providing any meaningful recourse to judicial process. [1] BBCs, Country Profiles: North Korea Profile, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15258878, May 23, 2013. [2] David Johnson & Franklin Zimring, The Next Frontier, p. 360, Oxford University Press, 2009. [60] Yonhap News, N. Korea executed at least three over cannibalism: think tank, http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/northkorea/2012/05/10/76/0401000000AEN20120510005200315F.HTML, May 10, 2012. Corée du Nord: Les lois se rapportant à la peine de mort et leur application, y compris le nombre de personnes condamnées à mort et le nombre d'exécutions, les crimes passibles de mort, les méthodes d'exécution, les procédures d'appel et de pardon, l'accès aux avocats, la ratification des instruments internationaux et les développements récents. [4] North Korea Criminal Code, art. [26] Elizabeth Shim, Public executions on the rise in North Korea as Kim Jong Un worries about safety, http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2016/10/20/Public-executions-on-the-rise-in-North-Korea-as-Kim-Jong-Un-worries-about-safety/5961476970354/, UPI, Oct. 20, 2016. [20] Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Torture, Death Penalty and Abductions, ASA 24/003/2009, Aug. 2, 2009. [64] Son Jong-nam was executed in December 2008 for communicating with organizations outside the country. [40]. 60, Mar. [21] North Korea’s Criminal Code prohibits the death penalty for crimes committed while under the age of eighteen. [13] Choe Sang-Hun & Rick Gladstone, Cheating Death, and the Rumor Mill, in North Korea, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/20/world/asia/north-korean-performer-reported-executed-appears-on-television.html?_r=0, N.Y. Times, May 19, 2014. 6, Dec. 19, 2007. A/73/PV.55, Dec. 17, 2018. Earlier this year, for instance, a South Korean news source reported the execution of army chief of staff Ri Gong Gil, but the report has since proved to be inaccurate. [66] Two officials from the Ministry of Electric Industry were executed for shutting down the electricity supply to the Sunjin Steel Mill in Kimchaek, North Hamkyung Province in February 2009. Fax: +82-2-723-1671 [32] The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. [11] Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Political Prison Camps, Camp conditions in Yodok, ASA 24/001/2011, May 3, 2011. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 2, Dec. 19, 2007. 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. [10] Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Political Prison Camps, ASA 24/001/2011, May 3, 2011. 6, 2015. [11] The Commission recommended that the government declare an immediate moratorium on executions and abolish the death penalty. The real number is likely to be much higher. [18] U.N.G.A. [22] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. [20] U.N.G.A. [38] The Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, art. ?? 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. Moreover, news reports from North Korea regarding specific executions should be read with great caution. An accessible version of the Death Penalty Worldwide Database will be available from February. 59, Mar. exécuté; La peine de mort - Texas; Exécution : 5 novembre 2009; Méthode d'exécution : injection létale; Documents associés. [10] One toilet is shared by 200 prisoners, no blankets are available in the winter, and public executions are carried out in front of prisoners. - In a particularly vague provision, even by North Korean standards, an “especially serious” case of being a “scoundrel” is punishable by death. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. Aux Etats-Unis, deux condamnés à la peine de mort ont été innocentés en 2019 après plus de 40 ans derrière les barreaux, ce qui porte à 166 le nombre total de détenus dans les couloirs de la mort dont l’innocence a finalement été reconnue par la justice, selon le rapport annuel du DPIC 27, 2012. Associated Press, North Korea executes 5 senior security officials, New Straits Times, http://www.nst.com.my/news/2017/02/216029/north-korea-executes-5-senior-security-officials-seoul, Feb. 28, 2017. [78] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 15, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. Marie-Orange Rivé-Lasan, maître de conférence à l'Université Paris Diderot, a participé à la mission d'enquête de la FIDH sur la peine de mort en Corée du Nord. 26, 2014. The Washington Post, North Korea’s Kim Vents Fury as Pressure Mounts Over Virus and Economy, South says, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/coronavirus-north-korea-executions-kim/2020/11/27/0156d35e-3063-11eb-9dd6-2d0179981719_story.html, Nov. 27, 2020. 4, Dec. 19, 2007. [29] North Korea Criminal Code, art. CCPR/CO/72/PRK, Aug. 27, 2001. 30, 2010. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007. [20] Kang Mi Jin, Criminal Code Inciting Border Fears, Daily NK, http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=11885, May 21, 2014. According to the North Korea Criminal Code and the Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, the death penalty should only be applied in the gravest cases. Although North Korea has lay people’s assessors in the people’s courts (which function as trial courts), they are elected by the organs of state power and therefore do not function as independent juries. [7] Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2020: North Korea, https://freedomhouse.org/country/north-korea/freedom-world/2020#PR, last accessed Apr. [16] Ha Yoon Ah, Drug dealer executed in South Hamgyong Province, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/drug-dealer-executed-in-south-hamgyong-province/, Apr. [18] North Korea rejected all recommendations. [16] Joe Tacopino, North Korea executes top official after poor diplomatic performance: report, Daily News, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/2010/07/20/2010-07-20_north_korea_executes_top_official_after_poor_diplomatic_performance_report.html, Jul. Secrecy has increased under the regime of Kim Jong-un, and experts indicate that the North Korean “rumor mill” is “out of control.” [13]. Due to the intense secrecy surrounding capital punishment, exact figures are impossible to come by. [9] David Johnson & Franklin Zimring, The Next Frontier, p. 362, Oxford University Press, 2009. 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. Cette méthode, utilisée la première fois pour la mise à mort d’un Chinois, Gee Jon (en), exécuté pour assassinat le 8 février 1924 au Nevada, s’est généralisée dans de nombreux États de l’ouest américain mais n'a plus été employée depuis 1999, du fait de la complexité et du coût de son utilisation. The Human Rights Council, in its 2010 Universal Periodic Review, recommended that North Korea establish a moratorium on executions with a view to abolishing the death penalty, end all public and extrajudicial executions, reduce the number of crimes punishable by the death sentence and respect minimum international standards such as the right to a fair trial, the limitation of the death penalty to the most serious crimes and the non-application of the death penalty to minors, pregnant women and persons suffering from mental diseases. 16-17, U.N. Doc. [email protected] [92], Personnes ayant un trouble mental.The Criminal Code excludes from criminal liability generally people who commit crimes while unable to understand their actions or unable to control themselves because of a chronic mental disease or temporary mental disorder. [23] The Guardian, North Korea executes officials by anti-aircraft gun in new purge, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/aug/30/north-korea-reportedly-executes-officials-anti-aircraft-gun-purge, Aug. 30, 2016. [24] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. In practice, the government executes individuals without meaningful recourse to judicial process. Amnesty International reports that many executions in North Korea are extrajudicial executions, which appear to have increased after Kim Jong-un called for a crackdown on people who attempt to escape to China. [62] U.S. Dept. Media reports, many of which obtain their information from South Korean sources, indicated that at least 3 executions were carried out in 2015. [30] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2015, ACT 50/3487/2016, Apr. At least 1. 26, 2014. - Failure to discharge a duty: A former Cabinet official who was in charge of talks with South Korea was executed by firing squad in 2010. Amnesty International reports that although the actual number of executions is unknown, at least one prisoner was publicly executed in June for distributing Bibles and espionage. A/HRC/22/57, Feb. 1, 2013. [3], Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.An “especially serious” case of kidnapping or inflicting an injury upon officials or citizens for “anti-state purposes” is punishable by death. [34] Choe Sang-Hun & Rick Gladstone, Cheating Death, and the Rumor Mill, in North Korea, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/20/world/asia/north-korean-performer-reported-executed-appears-on-television.html?_r=0, N.Y. Times, May 19, 2014. North Korea continues to carry out executions. 30, 2010. Amnesty International reports that at least 70 executions were carried out during the year under conditions of intense secrecy. [13], Crimes économiques n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.An “especially serious” case of plundering state property, [14] robbing state property, [15] or deliberately destroying state property [16] is punishable by death. Mun Dong Hui, N. Korean Smuggler Executed After Crossing Sino-North Korean Border, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/north-korean-smuggler-executed-crossing-chinese-border/, Mar. In early 2014, media sources reported that the Criminal Code was amended to extend the death penalty to 5 new offenses, including illegal phone contact with foreigners, listening to or viewing South Korean programs, using or dealing in drugs, human trafficking, and aiding and abetting defectors. [18]. 28, 2011. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009. [32] Gulf News, North Korean official ‘executed by flame-thrower’, http://gulfnews.com/news/world/other-world/north-korean-official-executed-by-flame-thrower-1.1316606, Apr. [12] In 2012, the U.N. Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in North Korea indicated that the addendum functioned as a complement to the Penal Code. [16] North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art. [18] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/eap/204210.htm, Apr. [17] Extrajudicial executions are especially prevalent in political prison camps, where public executions are carried out in front of the other prisoners. Given the level of secrecy surrounding the application of the death penalty in North Korea, reliable data are scarce. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2012, p. 23, ACT 50/001/2013, Apr. [15] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. Based on the ethnic composition of the general population and such practices, our best guess is that most of the persons on death row are Koreans. 19, 2013. 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. A/HRC/22/57, Feb. 1, 2013. [16], By the end of our research, there were no known reports of foreign nationals on death row, [17] although this could be related to the secrecy surrounding the death penalty in North Korea. [35] David Johnson & Franklin Zimring, The Next Frontier, p. 362, Oxford University Press, 2009. [30], Espionnage.An “especially serious” case of handing over state secrets to another country is punishable by death.

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